Giorgi Pataraia, Nana Tchanturidze, Grigol Tchatchia, Tatiana Mermanishvili


Introduction. As a result of technogenic human activity, a substantial amount of lead and its compounds are dissipated in the environment, the total mass of which exceeds six hundred thousand tons. The body absorbs lead ions through breathing, in the form of airborne aerosols, and when using contaminated drinking water and food, etc. Lead is collected in depot organs (bone marrow, bone tissue, parenchymal organs), stored there for a long time, sometimes throughout life, and becomes a constant source of toxicity.

The pathogenesis of lead intoxication, clinic and treatment have been comprehensively studied by the international  medical community. In the scientific literature, the main emphasis is on the description of the changes caused by toxic doses of lead and the development of treatment methods. Less attention has been given to studies of long-term exposure to lead at low, non-toxic doses. The establishment of long-term results of lead exposure is almost completely ignored; pathological changes 20-30 years after lead exposure.

Goal. Based on the aforementioned issues and taking into account the characteristics of lead (accumulation and permanent presence in the body of the bulk of lead, the long time required to reach the critical mass, lead activation and exacerbation of chronic on going toxicity  under conditions of acidosis), a new picture of lead intoxication emerges. Therefore, it became necessary to study, describe and generalize the changes that occur in the body as a result of long-term exposure low doses of lead.

Material and Methods. In experiments reflecting the results of remote exposure to lead, the material taken from rats was studied morphologically. A Leika DM 2500 universal light microscope was used for histological examination, and a Jeol 100 SX electron microscope was used for ultrastructural examination.

Results. The original experimental model developed by us makes it possible to investigate what changes can take place and form basis of what pathological processes present  in the body after  a long time of staying (work/living) in areas at risk of contamination with non-toxic doses of lead.

Conclusion. A more complete and high-tech study of experimental material (brain, heart muscle, aorta, lung, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, intestines) under a light (histology, histochemistry, immunomorphology) and electron (ultrastructural, sieve chemistry) microscope, interpretation and generalization of the results obtained will shed light on the pathogenesis of many "known" diseases and will necessitate adjustments of their  treatment strategy. We consider it likely that, the new concept – of aggressive prevention4, which implies the implementation of more effective preventive measures than has been accepted so far, will be justified, since there is a reasonable assumption that "Lead poisoning: a disease for the next millennium".


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ISSN: 2346-8491 (online)