Mullerian Anomalies diagnosis modern approaches

Ia Chapidze, Jenaro Kristesashvili


Background: Mullerian Anomalies are associated with such reproductive disorders as infertility, recurrent pregnancy losses, primary amenorrhea, and others. Accurate diagnosis is essential for determining a woman’s reproductive prognosis and planning certain types of interventions. The internal and external uterine contours evaluation is the key to the exact diagnosis and treatment. The hysterolaparoscopic procedure is considered the gold standard for evaluating Mullerian Anomalies, but the method is costly and invasive. 2D ultrasound sonography is a good screening method, but the uterus is not evaluated in the coronal plane. MRI is an expensive method and is used for the evaluation of complex anomalies. 3D ultrasound is a fast, cheap, non-invasive, and informative method for evaluating  Mullerian Anomalies.

Aim: To determine the effectiveness of  3D ultrasound in the diagnosis Mullerian Anomalies . 

Methods:  We aimed to observe literature data to review the current understanding of the role of 3D ultrasound in the diagnosis of Mullerian anomalies.  For this purpose following electronic databases were searched: Pubmed, Crossref, Mendeley, and Elsevier.

Results: 90 articles were reviewed, and 43 of them attracted our attention due to their statistical significance and were analyzed and discussed in our article.

Conclusion: Based on the literature review, we can conclude that 3D ultrasonography is a cheap, fast, non-invasive method for evaluating Mullerian anomalies. It showed high diagnostic concordance with the MRI method, virtually identical images are obtained by 3D ultrasound. Diagnostic difficulties arise in the case of cervical and vaginal anomalies, as well as in complex anomalies. Up to this date, it remains as a challenge, the correct diagnosis of the unclassifiable forms of Mullerian anomalies and the subsequent selection of their treatment methods, which is the basis for future research. 


Mullerian anomalies; 2D ultrasound; 3D ultrasound function; MRI ; Hysterosalpingography; septate uterus, T-shaped uterus, unicornuate uterus

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