Review of modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

Giorgi Khvedelidze, Merab Khvadagiani


Sleep apnea is a condition characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction leading to nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that between 2% and 4% of the middle-aged population suffer from sleep apnea, with more men than women. Risk factors for sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, family factors, craniofacial anomalies, and alcohol. Sleep apnea is increasingly recognized as a serious health problem, linked to hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapse and impaired respiratory control are the main pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosing sleep apnea and assessing the severity of sleep apnea; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in establishing a high pre-test probability of sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidities. Positive pressure therapy is the primary treatment for sleep apnea. Other treatments, such as upper airway surgery or mouth appliances, may be used to treat sleep apnea in selected cases. In this review, we will focus on describing the definition of sleep apnea, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, associated adverse effects, diagnostic methods, and treatment strategies.


obstructive sleep apnea

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